Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Federal Witness Protection Program - Annual Report: 2022-2023

On this page

  1. Alternate formats
  2. List of charts
  3. List of tables
  4. List of acronyms and abbreviations
  5. Introduction
  6. Program activities
  7. Complaints, civil and criminal litigation
  8. Effectiveness of the Witness Protection Program
  9. Transparency and accountability
  10. Expenditures
  11. Footnotes

Alternate formats

List of charts

List of tables

List of acronyms and abbreviations

COVID-19
Coronavirus disease
RCMP
Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Introduction

This is the 27th annual report on the federal Witness Protection Program, which was submitted to the Minister of Public Safety no later than June 30, 2023, as required by section 16 of the Witness Protection Program Act.

The Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is designated as the administrator of the Program and determines whether a witness should be admitted to the Program. As set out in the Witness Protection Program Act, the mandate of the Witness Protection Program is to promote law enforcement, national security, national defense and public safety by facilitating the protection of witnesses where there is a risk to their security.

Witness protection is an effective tool in combatting serious and organized crime. It is essential that the Canadian public has the confidence to provide information or assistance to law enforcement and security agencies without the fear of retribution or retaliation.

The activities and figures included in this report are based on the services provided by the Program between April 1, 2022 and March 31, 2023. To avoid jeopardizing the safety and security of protected persons and persons who provide protection, the information in this report has been provided at the aggregate level. This report strives to provide as much information as possible to the Canadian public without compromising the effectiveness and security of the Program, protected persons and Canadians.

Program activities

The Witness Protection Program provides protection to witnesses whose security is at risk for having assisted or agreed to assist in a matter relating to an inquiry or the investigation or prosecution of an offence. Protection can also be extended to a parent, child or anyone whose security may be at risk due to their relationship or association with those witnesses.

The Program is available to law enforcement agencies, federal security, defense and safety organizations across Canada, including designated provincial or municipal programs Footnote 1, as well as international criminal courts and tribunals and trusted international law enforcement agencies. Footnote 2

In the 2022-23 reporting period, the Program assessed 10 cases Footnote 3 for admission, based on factors set out in section 7 of the Witness Protection Program Act:

  1. the nature of the risk to the security of the witness
  2. the danger to the community if the witness is admitted to the Program
  3. the nature of the inquiry, investigation or prosecution involving the witness — or the nature of the assistance given or agreed to be given by the witness to a federal security, defense or safety organization — and the importance of the witness in the matter
  4. the value of the witness' participation or of the information, evidence or assistance given or agreed to be given by the witness
  5. the likelihood of the witness being able to adjust to the Program, having regard to the witness' maturity, judgment and other personal characteristics and the family relationships of the witness
  6. the cost of maintaining the witness in the Program
  7. alternate methods of protecting the witness without admitting them to the Program
  8. such other factors as the Commissioner deems relevant

Of the 10 cases assessed, 9 cases were referred from the RCMP and 1 case was from an international law enforcement agency. There were no requests from other Canadian law enforcement agencies. Chart 1 provides a representation of the yearly distribution of requests.

Chart 1: Cases referred to the RCMP for assement for admission to the Witness Protection Program

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RCMP International Other Canadian police agencies
9 1 0

Between April 1, 2022 and March 31, 2023, 10 witnesses were admitted to the Witness Protection Program. A witness who receives protection under the Program is referred to as a protectee. The level and type of assistance and protection provided depends on the circumstances of a protectee and may include relocation, accommodation, change of identity, as well as counselling and financial support to ensure their security and facilitate their re-establishment and reintegration in the community. Protectees are required to meet certain obligations, such as providing all information or evidence required by the investigation or prosecution, meeting all financial and legal obligations, and refraining from activities that constitute an offence against an Act of Parliament or activities that could compromise their security, other protectees or the Program itself.

During the same time period, no witnesses were provided alternate methods of protection by the Program, and 5 individuals refused all forms of protection. Reasons for an individual's refusal can include their unwillingness to relocate due to personal reasons, or an objection to the conditions imposed (for example, abstaining from illegal activity, never returning to the threat area).

It is important to note that the Witness Protection Program's admission considerations are independent from investigations. While the value of a witness' participation in an investigation is a factor that is considered for their admission to the Program, investigators are not involved in the admission process. This ensures the Program maintains independence from investigations and its primary focus is the security and safety of protectees and persons who provide protection. Chart 2 depicts the landscape of the individuals assessed for admission to the Program in 2022-23.

Chart 2: Individuals assessed

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Category Number of individuals
Alternate methods of protection 0 (0%)
Individuals refused 5 (33%)
Protectees admitted 10 (67%)

While protectees may be admitted to the Program for life, participation is voluntary and a protectee may request that the Commissioner terminate the protection provided by the Witness Protection Program at any time. This is referred to as a voluntary termination of protection. Reasons that a protectee may request protection be terminated may include a desire to return to a threat area or to proceed with their lives without the Program's involvement. In 2022-23, 11 protectees voluntarily requested termination of the protection provided from the Witness Protection Program.

Conversely, protectees may be subject to a non-voluntary termination of protection at any time if there is evidence of a material misrepresentation or a failure to disclose information relevant to their admission to the Program, or a deliberate and material contravention of their obligations under the Protection Agreement (section 9 of the Witness Protection Program Act). The decision to terminate the protection provided to a protectee is made by the RCMP Assistant Commissioner who has been delegated authority by the Commissioner to both admit witnesses into the Program and to terminate the protection provided to protectees. In 2022-23, 6 protectees were subject to non-voluntary termination of protection.

Complaints, civil and criminal litigation

During this reporting period, there were no civil litigation cases filed and no public complaints made against the Witness Protection Program Footnote 4.

Protectees may be required to testify in court. As such, the Witness Protection Program is required to disclose materials related to witnesses in trials on a regular basis. It is essential to protect any information about a witness's location, change of identity, or the means and methods by which a witness in the Program is protected, including the identity and role of persons who directly or indirectly assist in providing protection: information prohibited from disclosure under section 11 of the Witness Protection Program Act.

During the reporting period, 5 new cases were recorded related to criminal files which required protected disclosure by the Program. In addition to new cases, the Program remains engaged with criminal files and civil litigation claims from previous reporting years. Furthermore, the Program is required to disclose Witness Protection Program material pertaining to claims filed against investigative units. In 2022-23, Program personnel met the disclosure requirements of all ongoing files.

Effectiveness of the Witness Protection Program

The Witness Protection Program reports that no individual protectees were injured or killed by threat actors during the reporting period.

In the third year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Program remained centered around the continuity of its service delivery while maintaining the health, security and safety of individuals receiving support and protection.

Operationally, the Program's commitment to modernization efforts remained. The Program's operational and administrative priorities and initiatives were reviewed and updated. These include, but are not limited to: standardization and centralization of services and analysis tools, enhanced data gathering, and advancing research. These activities contribute to the successful delivery of the Program's mandate and enhance its ability to maintain public trust and confidence.

Transparency and accountability

To ensure transparency and accountability, the Commissioner of the RCMP is legislatively mandated to submit a public annual report on the operation of the Program to the Minister of Public Safety, no later than June 30th of each year. The report is prepared and tabled in Parliament in accordance with section 16 of the Witness Protection Program Act.

In 2013, the Program created the Witness Protection Program Advisory Committee to provide independent, expert advice to the Commissioner (and by extension, the Program) on a wide range of complex issues and to enhance the accountability of a program that is necessarily discrete, by acting as one of its only external review mechanisms. The Committee produces an annual report to the Commissioner and structures its findings and observations around the Program's three pillars:

  1. Protectee-focus: Ensuring the Program's service delivery places protectees at the forefront of decision-making by addressing protectee needs to ensure their security, safety, and re-establishment.
  2. Program independence: Ensuring the integrity of the Witness Protection Program, which requires the Program to be independent from investigative or prosecutorial interests.
  3. Program standards: Supporting consistent decision-making and professional, standardized service for all clients across all parts of the country.

Expenditures

The Witness Protection Program is administered by the RCMP and funded from within the RCMP budget. A table of costs for the 2022-23 fiscal year is provided in Table 1 below. It includes wages and benefits for personnel, travel costs, administrative and protectee expenses totaling $15.4 million. This total also includes the cost of internal services of $2.16 million, which encompasses financial management, legal services, real property services and human resources.

These costs do not take into consideration expenses incurred by other law enforcement agencies, including other witness protection programs.

Table 1: RCMP expenditures on Witness Protection Program for 2022-23
Expenditures Amount in Canadian dollars Percentage of total expenditures
Compensation $7,688,730.26 49.84%
Other police department secondments $24,337.00 0.16%
Travel $341,678.00 2.21%
Administration $506,289.00 3.28%
Witness protection expenses $422,610.00 2.74%
Miscellaneous $802,497.00 5.20%
Civil litigation costs $0.00 0%
Employee benefit plans $3,480,208.00 22.56%
Internal services $15,426,102.26 14%
Total $15,426,102.26 100%

Chart 3: Percent of total expenditures

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Category Percentage of total expenditure
Civil litigation costs 0%
Other police department secondments 0.16%
Travel 2.21%
Witness protection expenses 2.74%
Miscellaneous 5.2%
Administration 3.28%
Employee benefit plans 22.56%
Internal services 14%
Compensation 49.84%
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